##### In Summary

- Now, in science, there are two kinds of equations: empirical and theoretical.
- An empirical equation is one that is derived from experimental data.
- You start with some data and then you search for an equation that fits to it.
- A theoretical equation originates from a scientific theory; then experiments are designed to test whether the data agrees with the theory.
- Here you start with the equation and then test it with data.

“Complete, utter, Absolute, diabolical nonsense!” Those were the words of Martin Wyatt, my Form 2 mathematics teacher at Chania High School 36 years ago. He was reacting to answer that a pupil had given in class. I cannot remember the question but that statement was cemented in my mind for the rest of my life!

Those words came back to me early last week as I listened to the proceedings of the presidential petition at the Supreme Court. An expert swore an affidavit in an attempt to prove that the results were generated from a computer using a certain formula.

In the court filings, he presented a graph showing the votes for Uhuru Kenyatta plotted against those for Raila Odinga as the counting progressed. He claimed that he had monitored the results streaming through the public internet portal from about 5:15 pm on August 8. The data fitted to a straight line very well.

He then determined the equation of this line and found it to be y = 1.2045x + 183,546; where y represents Uhuru’s votes and x is Raila’s. So far, so good. But then he made the illogical conclusion this must have been the formula used to generate the results!

Now, in science, there are two kinds of equations: empirical and theoretical. An empirical equation is one that is derived from experimental data. You start with some data and then you search for an equation that fits to it.

A theoretical equation originates from a scientific theory; then experiments are designed to test whether the data agrees with the theory. Here you start with the equation and then test it with data.