In Summary
  • Kimani informed me the cows had been given hormones many times but they had failed to get on heat. He had thought of replacing them with in-calf heifers.
  • The cows were all good Friesians capable of producing 25 litres each day but poor feeding and management had driven the animals to a performance lower than that of a good dairy goat.
  • I was surprised that an animal health professional of any level of qualification had given hormones to Kimani’s cattle but when I questioned the farmer further, I realised the ‘doctor’ was a quack.
  • Many smallholder farms are in the same predicament as Kimani’s due to the farmers’ paucity of knowledge on cattle management.

Three months ago, Kimani from Ruiru reported his dairy cattle were not productive on all fronts yet, in his opinion, he was feeding them well.

“It is as though the animals have conspired to frustrate my milk production efforts,” he concluded and requested me to assess them and advise him on whether to replace them all.

On arrival on the farm, I could tell right from the gate the cows really had no problem of their own making. It was Kimani who needed the requisite knowledge on managing dairy cattle.

The farmer took me round his dairy unit. The cows were fed on grass hay, rice straw, dairy meal and some randomly determined mineral salt. Water was provided in containers made from plastic barrels cut in the middle.

Most of the waterers were dry or had little water. The floor of the sleeping cubicles had deep holes, which forced the cows to sleep in the walking area.

The eight cows in the shed looked miserable and tired. They had a lazy gait and flies landed on their faces for longer periods and the cows never made much effort to resist them.

There were only two calves aged about six months in the herd. They had long, thin discoloured hair. As we toured the unit, I gathered the cows produced on average two litres of milk per day each and six of them were in their second year of lactation since calving.

Kimani informed me the cows had been given hormones many times but they had failed to get on heat. He had thought of replacing them with in-calf heifers.

The cows were all good Friesians capable of producing 25 litres each day but poor feeding and management had driven the animals to a performance lower than that of a good dairy goat. It was a big waste of genetic production potential and a missed dairy business opportunity.

THE 'DOCTOR' WAS A QUACK

Before giving my findings to the farmer, I examined the animals for reproductive function by rectal palpation of the uterus and ovaries.

Daisy and Mary produced a long string of crystal-clear mucous at examination. They both had mature eggs in their ovaries and their uteruses were normal.

The other six cows had small smooth ovaries, indicating they had shelved reproductive activity for self-preservation during the long-standing starvation.

I announced to Kimani his animals had not gone on reproductive strike but if they had the capacity, they would definitely be demanding for their right to good nutrition and management.

I told him his quest to produce milk from the animals in their current state was like trying to win the Boston Marathon on a perpetual meal of githeri (maize and beans) - an impossibility.

I was surprised that an animal health professional of any level of qualification had given hormones to Kimani’s cattle but when I questioned the farmer further, I realised the ‘doctor’ was a quack.

He had only been working at an agrovet shop as an attendant but was now roaming the area masquerading as a paravet. The Kenya Veterinary Board had to know about that.

In summary, Kimani’s cows were being fed very poor diet in small quantities, which were not even measured. I estimated the cattle were taking approximately 5kg each of dry matter against the required 3 per cent of their body weight.

The cows should have been consuming about 13.5kg dry matter. To make matters worse, the hay and rice straws were very poor sources of protein and carbohydrate.

SAME PREDICAMENT

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