- Biti was released on bail of $5,000 on condition he surrenders his passport and does not address any political or news gathering.
Biti made a dash across the border on Wednesday, facing allegations of inciting protests last week.
Zambian authorities rejected Biti's plea for political asylum and handed him back to Zimbabwean police.
Tendai Biti, a veteran figure in MDC, faces charges of public violence and illegal declaration of results.
Western governments and the UN expressed alarm Thursday as top Zimbabwe opposition figure Tendai Biti appeared in court after a dramatic attempt to flee to neighbouring Zambia and claim asylum.
Biti, a veteran figure in the opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC), was taken handcuffed into a courtroom in Harare under a heavy police presence to face charges of public violence as well as the illegal declaration of election results.
"We survive," Biti said after he was released on bail of $5,000 (4,330 euros) on the condition that he surrenders his passport and does not address any political gatherings or news conferences.
"It's a pity that in most of Africa we don't respect the rule of law," added Biti, an internationally-respected finance minister in Zimbabwe's 2009-2013 power-sharing government.
Biti made a dash across the border on Wednesday, facing allegations of inciting protests last week by proclaiming victory for the opposition in Zimbabwe's first elections since the downfall of Robert Mugabe in November.
Mugabe's successor at the head of ruling party ZANU-PF, Emmerson Mnangagwa, was later declared the winner according to the official results, but the MDC claims the election was rigged.
Zambian authorities rejected Biti's plea for political asylum and handed him back to Zimbabwean police on Thursday morning, in defiance of a Zambia court ruling, according to his lawyers.
The UN refugee agency said it was "gravely concerned" that Biti had been deported while trying to claim asylum.
"Forcibly returning refugees and asylum-seekers to their country of origin is a serious violation of international refugee law," the UNHCR said in a statement.
It urged Zambia to investigate the incident, which comes after accusations that Zimbabwe's authorities are pursuing a heavy crackdown on the opposition as it pursues its claims of electoral fraud.
Zambian government spokeswoman Dora Siliya said authorities had only received the ruling from its own court blocking Biti's expulsion after he had been returned.
"His asylum was denied on the basis that in his country there is no breakdown in the rule of law," she told AFP, adding that Biti himself was "running away from the due process of the law" as he was wanted by authorities.