It is significant to note that "inclusivity" has since become the byword for the Building Bridges Initiative and the rationale behind the March 9 handshake.

To achieve the changes, the document proposed reaching out to the opposition then.

“The government can involve and agree with Cord on the possibility of amending the Constitution to effect the proposed structure of the presidency,” the paper says.

This was in part for self-perpetuation as the assessment painted bleak prospects for Jubilee re-election.

“Without bold and drastic measures, Jubilee as currently structured, would garner less than 50 per cent +1 to win the constitutional threshold in the first round, leading to a runoff," the paper, titled "The Political Situation", said.

Despite the elections being two years away, the paper anticipated Jubilee facing stiff opposition and endangering President Kenyatta’s re-election chances.

It proposed small regional parties being indirectly supported. In northern Kenya, parties allied to Jubilee were formed.


“Voters in Jubilee strongholds of Rift Valley and Mt Kenya total about 42 per cent. This is not enough and provides a high possibility of a runoff. The coalition as structured will gain less than 50 per cent +1 in the first round,” it went on.

Jubilee eventually won with 54 per cent of the presidential vote in a politically charged August 8, 2017 election.

The National Super Alliance (Nasa) successfully petitioned the Supreme Court for a repeat poll. Mr Odinga, then the Nasa candidate, boycotted the October 26 repeat, demanding electoral reforms.

To end the resulting paralysis, Mr Kenyatta and Mr Odinga closed ranks with the handshake and launched the Building Bridges Initiative, which aims at ending the cycle of instability during every election.

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