The bill had been passed 74-3 earlier this month in Alabama's House of Representatives.
Abortion would only be allowed in certain circumstances to safeguard the mother's health.
A woman who has an abortion would not be held criminally liable.
The Alabama senate passed the most restrictive abortion bill in the United States on Tuesday that bans any termination of pregnancy and could punish doctors who perform the procedure with life in prison.
The text, which the Republican-led senate sent to Governor Kay Ivey's desk for signature into law, does not include exceptions in cases of rape or incest.
Under the bill, performing an abortion is considered a crime that could land doctors who perform it in prison for 10 to 99 years.
Abortions would only be legal if the life of the mother is in danger or the foetus has a fatal condition.
The largest human rights defense organization in the United States, the ACLU, promised to file a lawsuit to block its implementation, saying the vote showed "how little they (conservative lawmakers) regard bodily autonomy."
"This bill punishes victims of rape and incest by further taking away control over their own bodies and forcing them to give birth," it added.
Alabama Lieutenant Governor Will Ainsworth, who also presides over the state senate, greeted the bill's passage as a "strong step toward defending the rights of the unborn."