In Summary
  • Despite their similar ethnic origins, the two communities speak distinct dialects and have different cultural habits, but in recent years they have traded customs.
  • The changes go beyond caffeine, with restaurants adopting Syrian food, architects fusing Iraqi and Syrian styles and even musical and linguistic exchanges.
  • Around the world, communities faced with an influx of newcomers often react with xenophobia, because of an instinctive fear that change would mar the host culture.
  • Around 300,000 Syrian refugees -- most of them Kurds -- now live in Iraqi Kurdistan, with the threat of a Turkish offensive last year pushing thousands into displacement camps in the north.

Arbil,

At first, no one in the Iraqi Kurdish capital Arbil would drink the bitter coffee at Syrian refugee Abdussamad Abdulqadir's cafe. But now it's a hit, part of a growing cultural exchange.

Since conflict broke out in Syria in 2011, many ethnic Kurds living in the country's northeast fled across the border to Iraq's autonomous Kurdish region.

Despite their similar ethnic origins, the two communities speak distinct dialects and have different cultural habits, but in recent years they have traded customs.

BUSINESS BAD

When Abdulqadir fled his northeast Syrian hometown of Qamishli six years ago, he settled in Arbil and opened a cafe in its bustling market.

During his opening week, he sent free cups of coffee to neighbouring shopkeepers to win new customers, but they complained it was undrinkably bitter.

"Business was bad," the 45-year-old told AFP, saying Iraqi Kurds typically prefer instant coffee or tea so sugary it resembles syrup.

With persistence and charm, Abdulqadir first converted his neighbours to drinking coffee with sugar -- then, eventually, to the original bitter drink.

He now has so much business that he opened a second quaint cafe in the market.

"Now I sell between 200 and 300 cups of coffee every day and 90 per cent of my customers are Iraqi Kurds who drink the coffee without sugar," he said proudly.

OTHER CHANGES

The changes go beyond caffeine, with restaurants adopting Syrian food, architects fusing Iraqi and Syrian styles and even musical and linguistic exchanges.

Jumana Turki, who has lived with her Syrian Kurdish husband in Arbil since 2014, said it used to surprise her how few women she would see in public in Arbil after dark.

But now women -- Syrian and Iraqi Kurds -- are shopping and even working in markets and shopping malls until late.

"This was the impact of Syrian refugees because in Syria, it was normal for women to work in markets and be out at night," said Turki, who holds a master degree in sociology.

XENOPHOBIA

Around the world, communities faced with an influx of newcomers often react with xenophobia, because of an instinctive fear that change would mar the host culture.

Kurds in northern Iraq have carved out an autonomous enclave where they speak the Sorani Kurdish dialect, have their own television channels and government bodies.

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